Westphalian system: the Guiding Principles of our Modern International System

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Summary:

It consists of the main ideas of world order are: 1).The principle of the sovereignty of states and the fundamental right of political self-determination. 2).The principle of legal equality between states (even powerful or weak states). 3).The principle of non-intervention of one state in the internal affairs of another state.

From 1618-1648 there were the longest and most destructive series of wars swayed in central Europe. The war started with enmity between the Catholic and Protestant states and gradually developed into the wars among the great powerful states for domination in Holy Roman Empire.  The first it started with the feeling of unhappy, jealousy among the Catholics and Protestants. They accused and viewed other sides as the trouble-maker. For many Calvinists, all Catholics were under the sway of the ‘bloodthirsty Jesuits’, whose leaders were working in league with Madrid and Rome to construct a universal monarchy.

For many Catholics, all Protestants—even the Lutheran loyalists—were under the sway of dangerous Calvinists, agents of the devil, aiming to extinguish the Catholic faith and to subjugate the emperor and all the Estates to the dominion of the Calvinist activists, the ruthless and irresponsible heirs of Machiavelli. Meanwhile, the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. The Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights and gathered together to form the Union. The Ferdinand II was unhappy and unbearable with the Protestants and cracked down.  Protestants negotiated with the Dutch, England, and France for help, while the Catholics turned to Spain. Span, who wished to crush the Dutch Republic to strengthen its power a long time ago, viewed the event as the chance to open the way to central Europe and control Burgundy, the Palatinate, and the Netherlands.

Austrian Habsburgs were eager to crush Protestantism and create a strong German national state—an idea which horrified the French even more than the plans of the Spanish Habsburgs. The war was thus so complicated and developed into the upheaval European wide. The civil war among the religious groups, and the war about the constitutional issues, the war for independence, and the international war for power.

The war prolonged many years with no one side conquered but with mass destructions. The event forced them to negotiate and create a series of the treaties called Westphalian Peace which becomes the modern international order. It consists of the main ideas of world order are: 1).The principle of the sovereignty of states and the fundamental right of political self-determination. 2).The principle of legal equality between states (even powerful or weak states). 3).The principle of non-intervention of one state in the internal affairs of another state. These concepts become very popular in the international relationship and in the context of NWO.

It gives the clue guidelines in the fast-changing world in the international aspect. To the realist, NWO is infeasible in the form of one world government, but it is feasible in the form of cosmopolitan of multipolar of democracy in the concept of Westphalian system.

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