Politics is the supreme art that require the far-sighted, deep insight, and capable-minded for those who work in this field. Scholars, philosophers, and political scientists who have engaged in it have tried to philosophize and theorize on what would be the best to act on and serve. The philosophies that bring to light up the learners or political candidates are usually originated from the experience and observation of the great thinkers. However, there are various political theories that come to exist for prescribing and advising the specific models and concepts of political systems.
Later scholars who observed those theories toughly have categorized them into the specific groups according to their beliefs and attitudes. Grouping the theories into their types and conceptual frameworks would be much easier for the learners. The Political philosophies of Realism and Idealism or Liberalism are the two main prominent schools of thoughts which provide the political frameworks and systems.
The political philosophy of the Realism looks into the actual reality of the political world. This school of thought views the political nature as the main source of struggling for power and interests. The school of thought rejects the idea that the purpose of the politics for delivering the moral value to the society. For the power, ends can be achieved, the enemies can be defeated, and the compromises can be sustained. They argue that power and interest are the ultimate goals of politics domestically and internationally. The realists suggest maximizing the power in all aspect of the political games and stages because it has huge effects on national security and interest. The power and interest determine the foreign policies of every state in which they are designed for. The realists such as Machiavelli, the most prominent thinker, in his book “The Prince” viewed that “everything must subjugate to the power and interest”.
He even urged the leaders to do whatever possible, deception, cheating, lying, threatening, and fierce methods for the national interest and security. If it can serve the national interest and power, all methods are right. First of all, the power can be exercised to shape the national interest and security. Second of all, the power can always make thing happen and right. The last, the results will justify the means. The realists believed that the human natures, as described by Thomas Hobbes, are selfish, cruel, ambitious, aggressive, and offensive.
The nature of human is compared to the nature of wolf. In his concepts of the State of Nature and Social Contract, Hobbes said that “men declared the war against each other”. The weak were abused and killed without justice. Therefore, the power must be exercised to stabilized and harmonize the lives in the society. Return to Machiavelli again, he believed that “the people are ungrateful liar, neither noble nor virtuous”. The scholars cannot ignore the history of the world as the evidence of the realists’ show-cases.
The word International Relations itself is referred to “the seeking for interest among the interstates interactions”. In addition to this theory, the world “the Balance of Power” is truly believed that “only by gathering the power to counter-the-power to share balance of power that peace and stability can be guaranteed”. In 20th century, Moa Zedong went on to elaborate that “there is no permanent foe or friend, but interests”. The realists do not believed in any specific political system. For them, any system and idea that can serve for the better society, that is the right ways. As mentioned by Alexander Pope, “for forms of government, let fools contest. Whatever is best ministered is the best”. This school of thought focuses the most on the capacity of the states to pursue their interests and power in the international arena. It also the states of the world politics are very competitive, war-liked, and conflicted.