There are many ways that the Buddha used to deal the problems. There are usually many problems that in the name of the leader has to face off internally and externally. In order to reduce the problems, the Buddha segmented the teachings into three categories. The three categories are the ways of internal strengthening, empowering and order. However, there are many external challenges that posed as the threats to the leader, people and institutions. How did the Buddha deal with those challenges?
First, the Buddha sought to purify the internal system. The Buddha identified the human nature, the nature of institution, and the roots and the nature of problems. He realized that all the unwanted things has their roots from the three roots of all evils. The greediness, anger, and delusion. The Buddha wanted not merely to resolve the problems, but also he wanted to cut off their roots. Therefore, he set up the three main training principles are: the disciplinary or the rule of law (to suppress and prevent from doing the wrong things), Concentration (to seek to the roots of the problems and the roots of wholesome), and wisdom (to cut the roots of problems and develop the fully-awakened ones). And the procedures and means of enforcement the rule of law can be found in the Vinaya in the following chapter and the other two principles are will be mentioned briefly. (Please conduct more research on these procedures and means in the Sutta and Abhidharman).
There were many external threats to the Buddhist Sangha and his institution. The Nigrantha wanted to harm the Buddhist Sangha. This group always tried to compete and make the problems for the Buddhist Sangha. They wanted to disparage the Buddha and his disciples. They wanted the people to know that only their group was the best one. And the Buddha and his disciples will be defeated. Wherever the Buddha went they went to disturb and annoy him by saying bad words, mocked the Buddha and his disciples, looked down and so on. They declared that they will show the spychic power to the public and defeat the Buddha and Sangha.
The Buddha once set the rule that prohibit the monks from showing the psychic and physical miracle power. As the leader, Buddha took the bold decision and he would do it to defend the Sangha and promote Dharma. So, when they were preparing to show the psychic and physical miracle powers to defeat the Sangha and Buddha, the Buddha also did to defeat them. The Buddha did not do it because he wanted to defeat them or hate them, but he did it was in the purpose of defending the Sangha and Dharma.
Buddha was a greatest leader who was very skillful in dealing with internal and external threats and disorder. There also another group who gave the bride to the king in order to persecute the Buddhist Sangha. There are many stories and lessons that given by the Buddha during his lifetime of 45 years. He also intervened the political conflict to stop the war among the states and promote peace and compassion. As the leader, ones has to know the causes of chaos and peace, and has the capacity to deal with them properly.