There has never been a global power that has many challenges such as China today. Unlike US that geopolitically, economically, politically, technologically, intelligently, and historically give it the most satisfactory and highest positions, China is almost all weeks. America considers itself as “chosen by God, commissioned by history to play unique hegemonic role”, because of these magnitudes. America works systematically under the legal training and criteria. For China, it is the mandates of heaven, but has to be achieved by supreme art of war.
It means that China has to work hard, persistent, and wisely under the “Great Harmony under the Heaven”. Geopolitically, China is being threatened and unsecured by internal struggling for independent declaration such as Tibet, Taiwan, Xinjiang, as well as Hong Kong who prefers the western system, and external threats and insecurity. China is surrounded by the historical enemies, strategic struggling for domination such as US, India, Japan, Vietnam, and US’s allies and so on. Its neighboring countries’ instability is also another challenge for China. China calls “disadvantaged position”. I am going to detail all these factors in the next Chapter.
I would like to point here only three challenges that mentioned by Lee Kuan Yew on the potential challenges to China’s growth, the first biggest threat is “corruption” which is the biggest challenge to the communist party, the second biggest threat is the social gab and income inequality which is the most biggest threat to social division and unhappiness, and the third biggest challenge is the language and cultural norms which is the biggest threat to its capacity of innovation and growth. Lee said “China’s] creativity may never match America’s, because its culture does not permit a free exchange and contest of ideas”. Therefore, in the report to the national congress, president Xi Jinping focused the most are “anti-corruption campaign”, “ the innovation, innovation, and innovation for healthy growth and core of development”, and “ common development”. One of his great plans is to eradicate the poverty by building the human capacity and encourage them to be “a bigger ambitious”.