The People’s Republic of China was established in 1949 when the communist party led by Chairman Mao and Zhou Enlai as the premier. The first generation of china was the struggling to purify and unify the whole nation through continuous revolutions. The first generation faced the domestic and external challenges. Domestically, the continuous revolutions, and Great Leap Forward, as well as just emerged from the world wars, and civil wars, China was heavily destructed socially, politically, and economically. Internationally, China faced the difficulty in managing the relationship between US and Soviet.
The US encirclement from Korean Peninsula to Taiwan until Vietnam in which triggered China to entered into the Korean War in 1950s, and supported the Vietnamese war against US. It also faced the nuclear threat from Soviet on the border and ideological issues in 1960s. However, the main objectives were: Purify and strengthening the ideologies and cultures, and the unification of the whole country. In 1957 Moa said:
“The unification of our country, the unity of our people and the unity of our various nationalities – these are the basic guarantees of the sure triumph of our cause”. “Communists should set an example in being practical as well as far-sighted. For only by being practical can they fulfil the appointed tasks, and only far-sightedness can prevent them from losing their bearings in the march forward.”