China Power and Art of War, by Henry Kissinger

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He even on to elaborate that “he knows the victory before the war going to be fought” by calculating these elements:

(1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral Law?

(2) Which of the two generals has most ability?

(3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth?

(4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced?

(5) Which army is stronger?

(6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained?

(7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment?

Henry Kissinger addressed the Chinese intellectual game which represent Chinese strategic approaches. The Game GO or Chinese calls “Weiqi” is the “the game of surrounding pieces” which the player do not seek to confront the enemy or seek total victory, but focus on “the strategic encirclement”. Each of the player has 180 pieces with the empty board of grid nineteen by nineteen lines. Contrast to the Chess that all pieces are on the board and confront each other that allow the players to calculate, the Weiqi pieces are not on the board which the player has to use “strategic analysis”. He said “The players take turns placing stones at any point on the board, building up positions of strength while working to encircle and capture the opponent’s stones. Multiple contests take place simultaneously in different regions of the board. The balance of forces shifts incrementally with each move, as the players implement strategic plans and react to each other’s initiatives. Chess is about decisive battle, Weiqi about the protracted campaign. Chess seeks for total victory, single-mindedness, and decisive point, Weiqi seeks for relative advantage, strategic flexibility, and strategic encirclement”. He added “Chess is preferred by the west, Weiqi is by Chinese”.

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