Deng Xiaoping is recognized as the paramount leader of the second generation until his resignation in 1992. Unlike Moa, the second generation focused on economic development and pioneering to economic reform. Deng, who went to France in his early age and then to Moscow, praised about the development of the west and felt of the backwardness of his society. Therefore, the objectives were: architect the combination socialist ideology with the pragmatic economy which called “Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”.
Deng who came to power amidst the social and economic destruction wanted to develop the economy in order to solve other issues “to be rich is glorious”. He reformed and opened up the country to the global market and foreign investment which brought Chinese economic fast-growth. The schools were reopened and sent the students and officers to learn abroad. In his time, even though the US-China relations was normalized, he faced the democratic movement that he said “initiated by other” referred to US in order to stagnate the economic reform. He also went to war to force Vietnam who invaded Cambodia to withdraw in 1989, and cooperated with US supported the Afghan against Soviet. During these period, China played important roles in leading the developing countries, but also concerned and needed more times to growth. Deng advised:
“Observe carefully, secure our position, cope with affairs calmly, hide our capacities and bide our time, be good at maintaining a low profile, and never claim leadership.” “